Abstract:There are two types of economies in the world. One that relies heavily on one specific resource and one that collects revenue from diverse economic resources. In Saudi Arabia, the specific resource is oil. However, relying on one sector of income can create long-term instability. Since 1970, the Saudi government introduced new policies for more diversification but failed to fully implement them. The research attempts to answer (1) what the challenges of economic diversification policies in Saudi Arabia are, and (2) what can lead to a greater diversification despite these challenges? Employing an empirical approach, the work analyzes three challenges of diversification policies and efforts: (1) Saudi culture of the rentier state and youth work ethics, (2) government subsidization has to be reduced in order to promote innovation and (3) reduction of government control and influence. Subsequently, future conditions and settings that answer the question whether economic diversification in Saudi Arabia is possible after all. The paper adds to the literature of economic diversification in rentier states.


  • “Modern U.S. National Security: Enduring Long-Term Core Objectives and Changing Short-Term Interests.” New York: Journal of Political Inquiry. Spring 2016.

Abstract: This work examines whether American National Security is characterized more accurately by relatively consistent and enduring interests, or by interests that are reactive to a changing international environment, the priorities of specific U.S. administrations, and the actions of other state and non-state actors. The author argues that the long-term core interests of past administrations have not changed. However, the fast-changing global environment does require dynamic short-term interests. This thought-essay was written as part of the graduate course U.S. National Security.